Saturday, August 05, 2006

The Attitude Earthquake hits India

In a week's time the car population of Mumbai will increase by one. I will be responsible for it. Yes I know I recently wrote about the merits of car pooling but guess what - I have been car pooling for several years now. With my husband.

Times have changed and so have our schedules. After spending a small fortune on travelling in sadly maintained taxis driven by people who never ever have change, I decided to spend a bigger fortune and just buy another car.

Anyways, this post is not about justifying why I am buying a car but about a surreal experience I had at the Ford showroom while buying it. There I am, furrowing my brow over finance discount, dealer discount and all that jazz when I hear the salesman tell a prospective customer:

"Sir, if you drive everyday then go for Fiesta - it's more comfortable. If you drive once a week take Ikon..."

The 'customer' is this stringy 18 year old kid. Actually there are 3 of them - 1 boy and 2 girls, all pretty grungy and look like they've just escaped from college.

I ask the lady who's assisting me,"Do kids like this come in often?" I mean sure they probably do - but for the dealership to take them so seriously is kind of a shocker.

"Yeah," she replies,"Some just come for timepass but others come back with their parents and actually buy the car.." I'm guessing officially it's for 'family' use but in all cases with generous rights for the kid who's taken the trouble of doing so much R & D.

I don't know why this should shock me, really. Many of my college-age cousins in Delhi get to use the car - but beat up Maruti 800s or at best a Santro. But times are changing and more and more parents want their kids to have 'the best'. Whether it's a car or education abroad...

For me, buying a car that costs over six lakhs is a big deal - even today. I wonder what will be a big deal for the kid I saw in the showroom today, who gets it at age 19. Not that all Indian teens are like him. But there are enough now to wonder, "What will be this generation have to strive for... sweat for... look forward to?"

In this context I think we can draw a parallel with Japan.

What lies ahead
There is a large body of work which has studied the changing consumption and behaviour patterns of Japanese youth - and although circumstances are not exactly same in India, I feel they are quite close. Japan was a country with a strong traditional and family culture. And it went through a phase of rapid economic growth. A paper by Ana M Guy-Yamamoto notes:

The first distinctly 'different' set of Japanese youth were the Shinjinrui which means specifically "New human breed". This term was coined in the 1980s when this generation, at the time in their early twenties, were showing a different set of values in their work and leisure behaviour..."

The shinjinrui rebelled against the culture of being a ‘salaryman’ ie being employed in one company for one’s lifetime. They expressed an image consciousness – leading to the rise of luxury brands. And they indulged in more leisure. These new attitides were fuelled by the fact that Japan was going through a buyoant period, now known as the 'bubble economy'..

A UCLA study concluded that the shinjinrui are characterised by:

1. Individualism, and particularly selfish behavior patterns, in which youth tend to place highest priority on individual benefit or values;

2. A strong predilection toward consumer behavior; and

3. Expressionism, the tendency to insist on presenting oneself and the individual's attachment to such presentations.

To place the shinjinrui in a favorable light, they were the first generation to be fully brought up in an affluent consumer society.

India is currently experiencing a 'shinrinjui' of its own. A whole new generation which has not experienced a world without satellite TV, SMS and shopping malls is now entering the workforce. Those born around 1980 and who are around 25 today still have some memory of the pre-liberalisation India. Those born post 1985 have none at all.

So we are seeing all of the above attitudes - and they are impacting the work culture and life in general. Going by the Japanese experience, the trend would continue for about a decade. Shinjinrui were followed by a 'dankai jr' generation with similar characteristics ("collectivist, trend leaders, preference for known brands"). Why give them a different name at all? Because that's what journalists and consultants are paid to do!

But what happens next is interesting. In the 90s Japan went through an economic slowdown but as the New Yorker notes in a 2002 article: "You wouldn't know that the country is in recession from the way young people spend money".

Because of the recession and the inflation of real-estate prices, many young Japanese continue to live at home well into their twenties; buying clothes is one of the things that living rent-free in a small apartment with your parents permits you to do. One young Japanese curator, Koji Yoshida, explained to me that the phenomenon of the free-spending Japanese youth is a product of paternal guilt.

This kind of indulgence from parents has resulted in new kinds of youth attitudes. For example, the otaku. Otaku originally referred to a category of young Japanese men who were fixated on manga but now means "being focussed and almost obsessed with something you like." The word is often used to describe someone with a fanatical interest in computers or fashion.

And fashion for many means 'pursuing right T-shirt or cap ... with a kind of dogged intensity'. Young people are willing to pay 400 dollars for a limited edition sweatshirt which is 'in' at the moment. The money? Comes from parents or from temp jobs which have become popular for two reasons
a) because they choose to remain independent
b) because companies aren't hiring permanent workers.

The Indian context
So are we looking at a future when Indian kids will spend their time and their parent's money obsessing about buying the new bling thing even as they hop from one job to the next in search of enough excitement to make attending office seem like bungee jumping?

Well yes and no. Unlike Japan where 'poverty' is non existent, India has many social strata. The underprivileged and the middle class will continue to have fire in the belly - they will aim to work hard, crack exams, get good jobs. This lot will remain slightly conservative in its consumption pattern - be label conscious but not price-blind.

However in their approach to work they are already (and will continue to be) very demanding, individualistic and restless. Tolerance to criticism or work not upto their liking is low - that's already clear as companies struggle with attrition. These folks don't have the luxury of not working, but there are so many jobs available that they have no incentive to suppress their true nature. Which is to 'do what I want to do, no compromises.'

But there is also a growing number of young affluents into their 20s who are not sure what they want to do. And parents are indulgent enough to allow them this luxury. In Japan they are referred to as 'parasite singles' as they continue to remain dependent on their parents for sustenance, and live in their home.

The emergence of 'parasite singles' can be seen as casting a shadow over the Japanese labour market for young people as well. Since parasite singles do not face financial difficulties, they do not look for jobs with high wages, treating work as something akin to a “hobby.” Because of this attitude, if they find their job uncongenial, they immediately give it up. The resulting unemployment of young people is a “luxury unemployment” that does not involve real financial necessity. To them, work is a discretionary pastime, or a means of earning pocket money.

In India, I think it’s slightly different. We would never label someone who stayed at home as a parasite single… But there is an attitude of ‘hobby employment’ among those who can afford it. A group of young people who is constantly looking for 'experiences'. Six months here, 1 year there - collecting bits and
pieces to stick on a resume to make it look eclectic and interesting.

When the parent starts wondering where this will all lead, the kid buys a litle more time by going abroad to study. Or finally agrees to join the family business - which is why he/ she could fool around in the first place.

Ultimately this would lead to a few geniuses like Farhan Akhtar - he just sat home watching videos for two whole years after college. And then went on to make Dil Chahta Hai. But there will also be a bunch of confused souls who will ping pong between extremes of hedonism and spirituality in a desperate search for some meaning in life.

As Japanese novelist Ryu Murakami noted in Time magazine in the year 2000.

By the 1970s, we had already achieved the national goal. We had worked hard to restore the country from the ruins of World War II, develop the economy and build a modern technological state. When that great goal was attained, we lost much of the motivating force that had knit the nation so tightly together. Affluent Japanese do not know what kind of lifestyle to take up now. That uncertainty has pulled people further apart and caused a whole raft of social problems...

In India we do have a balancing factor. We have the motivating force of making this country a great one. Previous generations were cynical and felt helpless. The current one is aware, interested but mostly self obsessed.

I expect that the next generation – those born after 1995 will be far less enamoured by the materialism which fascinates this one. We are seeing some signs of young people already meandering into the path of nation building. Like the folks at Bharat Uday Mission. With the right kind of impetus and leadership we will see many more.

Of course someone needs to coin cool names for all these groups of people - like the Japanese have. Offhand I though of one - 'aaraamkhor' for the parasite single. Nah, sounds good - not descriptive enough. But you get the idea - and can probably come up with better ones :)

Bottomline: Individualism is a natural human trait. We suppress it out of economic or emotional necessity. But when those needs are taken care of - especially the economic ones - it rears its hard nosed head and disrupts the carefully woven fabric of society.

It takes time while the old fabric is torn up and fashioned into a new garment. And for a while, people will walk around looking like they have no clothes at all... but the human race is adaptable and eventually we adjust.

Just like I am adjusting to a 19 year old driving around in a Ford Fiesta. And the realisation that my daughter may someday expect me to buy her one...


  1. Hi Rashmi.. another extremely relevant and meaningful post. .as usual :)..

    And yes i agree with most of the points you've made..particularly the one which says that the Indian youth still has the motivation to make this country a great one.

    The presemt generation (1985-ish) and the next (1995-ish) are not only capable, but also focussed on nation-building than pre-1980 generation.

    However, i personally feel the "19-somethings driving a Fiesta" phenomenon is a negligible minority.

    Anyway, Keep up the faith and look forward to a better future.. JAI BHARATH.

  2. I tell you these kids today.... In my day we had to work to get things. Are parents never bought us stuff, they made us walk miles in the rain to get to school. We werent brand conscious in school at all. Nobody cared about who had the latest Pencil Box, or who had the coolest school no no...these things started happening after we left school...

    I tell you these kids value for money!

    Sorry to say your sounding like my mom, complaining about my lack of value for things. Im 33 by the way.

  3. Fantastic Blog, really relevant. I would like to point out one thing that is happening in Bangalore with the software growth. People joining jobs dont really know how much money is enough to lead a comfortable life. I mean I have seen people not being happy with a job which is paying 4 lakhs per annum, even tough in my opinion, for their academic background that is the best they could hope for. With the kind of money they get, they spend it lavishly and their children, seeing this lavish spending will not even think about looking at the price tag before purchasing. South Indians are no more conservative, they have bceome lavish spenders. Is this good or not I dont know, more money spent by them means more spreading of money, but there is a danger that we loose our ability to judge whether whatever we are buying is overpriced or not.

  4. I always read ur blogs but posting first time as i found that i can add some comments to it .

    Due to liberilization india is boosting in the economy.People who work for the corporates get most of the disposable income.They are lavishly spend those money with checking the value for it in many aspects.All of them want foriegn brands to show their status in the society.Irony is that the people who spend this is mostly middle class.They are suddenly outbursted with more money so they can spend o n the good they want or dreamt of buying them.

  5. Rashmi, nice well-researched post - and quite relevant too. South Mumbai always had enough rich kids (of rich parents who have bigger cars, aside: the parking lot at the Mumbai Taj Mahal hotel probably has the highest concentration of Mercs and BMWs in India), but these days its not uncommon to find teens hanging out in cars (not the 800s and Zens) in a Bandstand or Powai as well.

    This is a phase I guess every society in transition goes through: what is true for (a tiny part of) India today was true for the Japs in the 80s and America from the 70s till a large part of the 90s. In the US, the kids of the Baby Boomers had it really easy - not only cars, retail chains dedicated to kids and teens, night clubs, gyms and casinos, credit cards - all benefitted from this wave. Cool rules was the mantra.

    There are signs that the current generation of kids in the US (late gen Y onwards), as well as other developed countries, feel a lesser need to show off, are less individualistic and materialistic, and have a broader world view. Terrorism and the internet have also shown them a different side of the world they live in.
    And chances are the same will happen to the "South-Mumbai type" of India as well because the generation-gap between countries is shrinking quite rapidly.
    But for now, its more of "Just chill chill...".

  6. Nice, but how many people like that are there? It is okay to look at top half a percent of population and say we are going to be like Japan, but are we really? The fact is that the kind of resource crunch we have today, this situation may not happen for another 50 years. And resource crunch we do have. How many years' salary would it take a young professional to buy a home? How about the fact that a "decent" home in Delhi costs 50 lacs +? How about the fact that if you save 5 crores as retirement funds today, your kids 20 year later may be able to buy a flat with it and nothing more? The fact is that we have created only a limited amount of wealth and resources. As new consumers enter the market to claim those resources, the huge shortage becomes apparent and it goes further out of reach, for everyone.

    That is why it looks a bit premature, a bit self-congratulatory. Because the 19-year kid you talk about has always been there. He was there 20 years ago when his dad could buy him a spanking new Maruti ('coz the dad could hoard something mundane like cement and make oodles of money out of it), when only 10,000 Indians could buy a car in a year and others had to wait 12 years after booking to buy a scooter. How is it different from that?

    Just a statistic. When did US cross $5000 in per capita income in today's dollars? The "shocking truth" is, in late 1880's. Today, we are ONE-TENTH of what US used to be more than a 100 years ago. Too early to celebrate...

  7. We should not feel surprised about people buying their kids expensive cars as things are changing. My folks couldn't have hoped to buy their first car at 23. and taking a loan was sacrilege in itself. They saved enough money tomake the full payment upfront....and still dont see the rationale behind "loan for car"

    Similarly kids getting a ford fiesta instead of a 800 or even a bike is no longer a big deal.

  8. There never can be an excuse for not working but there is nothing wrong in striving to do your own thing or what comes natuarlly to you. All our great spiritual stalwarts have said that and there is a word in the shastras by the name of Svadharma which is one's calling in life.

    Those who are interested may take a look at Make your passion your profession

  9. Hi,

    I found your article mostly analytical. I mean, I was expecting that you'll point out what happened in Japan as a result of this culture and which we, in India, can avoid and not go the Japan way! And try to freeze or expand the state of being economically affluent.

    BTW, I was born in 80-85 period and didnt have to 'fight' for a lot of things.

  10. hey rashmi

    Nice Article

    Its probably the pent up consumerism thats expressing itself...not just our generation but so many before that.

    When I was a small kid I really wanted to have a Barbie doll...but guess what it no VFM at all..."isnt that money better saved in a gold earring or something like that??"

    So now, I dont feel ashamed to spend my money on something that my parents consider a flagrant waste of money..our generation believes in current consumption!

    People of our generation dont mind renting that fabulous apartment in Bandra and paying an exhorbitant rent rather that taking an HDFC loan to buy a house in Goregoan!

    Maybe its coming of age of a deprived lot ....

  11. Personally,I don't see what's wrong with materialism.It's our money after all.Parents are ready to spend on us,We are ready to spend on ourselves.Times change.We want to live a good life,then so be it.

    Nice post by the way.Well-researched.

  12. I think the problem is defining life in terms of material success. I've met people from the call centre industry, barely 30+ earning stupendous amounts. They buy a car, a house and then wonder what next?

    Part of the problem- when we raise kids that's how we define their goals: get a job, a house, a good life partner...

    We actively need to expand our horizons...towards community, spirituality, a wholesome contributive life style. And like you said- it’s happening more and more.

    Great post! (btw, I'm 25...)

  13. I am a fan of your blog.
    Just one question: Do you plan to join the carpool service when you get the new car?

  14. For those wondering what is wrong with this kind of materialism, please visit Bangalore or follow the local crime news of this city.

    With the rise of 'just out of college' grads/undergrads earning sums incommensurate with their skills or the efforts put into their education - and lacking the maturity to realize the value of the money in hand, there is a extreme rise of consumer-junkism in this city.

    But the city, like all other towns/cities in India still has the vast strata of people who don't haven't hit this 'liberalization' jackpot yet. And the result is - daily incidents where employees from IT/BPO companies are getting kidnapped, mugged, robbed for their laptops, ATM cards, Nokia's or other such contraptions.
    Its not that other cities dont have crime - but there is not a single other instance where crime against such a set of people has risen so sharply.

    Materialism without a balance is bound to create a society of extreme's... leading to wider social unrest.

  15. Hi Rashmi,

    A very thought provoking post.

    my 2 pence:
    As part of a normal middle class family,born in 75, I am glad I went thru all thoes turbulent times because it taught us a lot about the value of money and people around.also better times look a lot better when they come after a bad phase.

    Untill I had my daughter I thought I would want my child to go thru the same childhood I had, absolutely safe, full of love & care & had all we needed ...(inspite of the tons of WANTS), but today as a new parent, I know how difficult it is to resist to buy my daughter something I like, which is overlypriced and sometimes not even necessary. probably more than my 4-month old daughter, its me whoz desires I am pampering right now. So I guess we need to change ourselves and let our kids grow with exactly what they need and not with what we would like them to have which would surely come back haunting in a few years time.

  16. An interesting read but I think it is not fair to compare Japan and India. We do not have similar social, economic or political fabric on the basis of which a comparison can be made between our two countries. It has taken years of focused hard work and diligence not just from one particular strata of society but an entire nation to have the collective will to write the Japanese growth story from the war ravaged country that it was 50 years back. We have not done that hard work yet to claim that we as a nation can enjoy the fruits of our labor. We are jumping the gun which makes me feel really concerned that are we really there...where we are claiming to be!!!!

  17. Hi Rashmi,

    Very relevent article.

    I was not aware of the importance of blogs and when i joined a guest lecture. The guest told us about ur blogs and suggested us to visit. I have a passion for such articles and i also want to write something about my surroundings but the problem is that I have a little knowledge of computers and i m unable to create one blog for me. I have so many things to share like u can u please help me to make one blog for me. I m a management student and my name is Sunil Verma.

    U have written reallt a very nice article and i m expecting more like this from u. Thanks

  18. ok i've got something to say. Its not at all times the children's fault. Its the parents too. Sometimes they just love ther kids so much that they want to give them every possible kind of luxury and they forget the advantage the child would get if they dont treat him/her well but in some cases it may turn to b a disadvantage as well. that completely depends on the child's attitude towards life. and it is not the same for everybody.
    Parents who are rich sometimes do that only to show off their status. But yes today there are indeed many teenagers who can afford luxury but they just don't want it for various reasons. for instance, trying not to become a liability and there's nothing wrong with that. Many want to get exposed to the harsh way of life and many don't. I think the majority is still under the parent control. One reason, parents have become too smart and the other we teenagers donot believe in breaking bonds. yes we do believe in having a life of our own but doesnt everybody? and about the fashion stuff i would say everybody needs a change in their lives its just human nature. Even today there are many teenagers who really don't care how they are cool uncool. everyone has his/her own way to live it. everyone has an ambition and it maybe finding the true meaning of life. n there's nothing wrong with that too. how can one do a thing until he's figured out what it is!

    I'm just 15yrs old so please forgive me if I haven't deciphered the correct meaning of the post above.

    And yes at times people are not satisfied with the jobs that only pay them good amount. There're other things as well that matter. Their interests. It is awfully difficult to do something you dont enjoy doing. Like studies at school you cant be good if u dont enjoy. in some way or the other u have to ejoy 'em cuz there's no other choice (we obviously cant skip school). So when one has grown up and realised what his interests are, he's in a position to choose. And it's good they dont do the jobs that they're not interested in. Because they would not give in their hardest of efforts.

    Mayb the above thing is irrelevant. I'm not very sure. Forgive me anyways for wasting your time.

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