Thursday, April 03, 2008

No more IITs, we need Indian Institute of Talent

Sorry to be cynical about it, but this whole announcement of 4 new IITS and 6 new IIMs is nothing more than an election year carrot for middle class India.

First of all, do we need more IITs and IIMs in this day and age? This is not the 1960s or 70s when the concept of management or engineering education was a new one. And hence the government played the role of catalyst, evangelist and capitalist - all in one.

Now, it's more like mere neighbouring state mein ek IIT hai, mujhe bhi chahiye. Jaise Vijay Sales mein LCD TV dekh kar aayr aur socha, ek din hamare ghar mein bhi hoga.

Today there are 1600 engineering colleges and 1000 + bschools in India. The demand for these courses is being met adequately by private enterpreneurs. You can dispute the quality of many of these institutes but the thing to do then is to institute mechanisms to improve that quality.

"Building one more quality institute' will not address the problem. Assuming you can genuinely build quality - not just affix the tag IIM onto a good looking campus and take in all the wait listed students off the existing IIMs.

Speaking of mechanisms AICTE urgently needs to a makeover. The class bully cum school monitor approach is clearly not working. We need a regulatory body, but one which is effective, impartial and recognises that excellence is not just about square feet of campus area but academic integrity and intellectual capital.

So should the government completely exit higher education? I'm not saying that. But I think its role has to be more of playing the pioneer, of entering new and virgin territories.

So a National Law School University was an excellent idea and several more such institutes have come up along the same lines. This has certainly resulted in more bright young people taking up law as a career.

Let's take education as an example of a career the government could pick up and invest in. If you set up an IIT-IIM-NID like instiute of excellence where entry is based on a prestigious national entrance exam, I am sure that within 5 years the teaching profession as a whole would become respectable.

And there would be recruiters willing to pay attractive salaries to these graduates.

But going back to the whole concept of IITs and IIMs, I think the time has come to abandon this compartmentalised approach. Let's recognise that most students who join these institutes are not doing so out of deep interest in technology or management. They are in it for the chhaapa and the placement.

The situation is especially bad in case of IITs because the students are 17-18 years old. And they've slogged so hard to get in to the institute, many have little interest in what they actually study on campus.

So if I were the government I would set up an IIT which is an Indian Institute of Talent. You come in, get exposure to a number of different subjects (engineering, science, commerce and arts) and then in your 3rd year choose a
specialisation in one or the other subject which turns you on. Basically, the American university model where undergraduate education is all about choices. Not 'the best course I could get in with my marks'.

Come to think of it, we do not have any institution in India where Arts, Commerce, Science, Engineering, Design, Music, Medicine and Management co-exist on a single campus. At best we put up techno campuses where a medical, dental and engineering may co-exist.

The IITs are in fact the only technical institutes with Humanities departments but these depts don't enjoy the same status and importance as others because an undergrad cannot major in these subjects.

Imagine how much human potential would be freed if we de-linked 'intelligence' from the study of technical subjects. Left to themselves, we would find students who choose to major in organic chemistry out of love for the subject, not JEE rank.

And maybe we wouldn't need more IIMs to escape to... after graduating in 'I never cared for this' kind of subjects!


  1. I agree, I 'chose' to do engineering because that's what intelligent kids did not arts and literature which attracted me more. Soon after in 4th year I jumped at the opportunity to 'escape' engineering by writing CAT..however that was another chakravyuh governed by different rules of "intelligence" all together!

  2. Great post. I really appreciate the idea of students choosing what interests them after coming to the institute. However how do you decide everybody gets what they like or everybody chooses what they like? In 1970's BITS used to have a system in which the students came into the institute without being alloted a branch. They were alloted one on the basis of their performance or the much feared C.G.P.A . It failed because as our professors put it " it put a lot of pressure on students ". Even today here the Msc. students get their dual degree of their engineering only on the basis of their first year performance. Here too i cannot help but notice the pattern of taking up seats is nearly the same as was before.
    I feel the need is to increase awareness about what are opportunities in other areas and what can be done. As a friend of mine from Carnegie melon put it. India has a job driven education system and not a research driven. Probably that is a reason why a person who loves organic chemistry still takes up a computer engineering course - cuz the latter pays. AICTE should focus more on research i believe.

  3. hey
    i dont know i have know the exact condition in the private colleges or the non IIT's ..having seen the NIT's and other colleges..
    i strongly we badly desparately need more IIT's ...student is to teacher ratio is pathetic out here..and the idea of makeover of an institute to IIM by govt sounds good.but the issue u cant build IIM or IIT in 100 acres...n need to have something already...but somehow private colleges ..literally have nothing ..expect a show off...
    the idea of makeover of BHU can work coz they got ample space to make it look and feel like an IIT or an IIM ....

  4. I was very happy with the idea of some more IITs and IIMs opening but your post definitely gave a different perspective ... isn't it that your thoughts are like sacrificing a chicken for saving a goat ... the education system is bad but then you can't stop doing what you are already good at .. what are the 200 odd universities listed with AICTE or UGC doing or not doing? this is a different issue i guess

  5. Nice post.. Recently an article by ex-IIT director Indiresan appeared in some newspapers in which he wrote that starting more IITs and IIMs is like adding more water to milk to increase milk production.. Instead of starting new IITs and IIMs govt should encourage private players to start quality institutions.. best example in this regard is ISB. It is doing extremely well even though it doesnt have the precious IIM-tag.. in future more such quality private institutions should come up which will compete with the famed IITs and IIMs.. and the governmennt's role should be to regulate them(fees structure, quality etc).
    in short what is required is quality educational institutions and not necessarily IITs and IIMs.

  6. I agree with that 100%. There is no point in starting more IITs and IIMs just because you think the existing institutions are bad. Something must be done to improve the existing ones.

  7. Totally agree with you

  8. I don't think I quite agree with you Rashmi (even though you seem to have quite a big following here). Redefining the role of AICTE, opening an institute of Telent and opening an IIT are quite independent things and need to be taken up separately. I definitely think we need atleast 10 more IITs and 10 more IIMs and not just for the sake of having one in every state - but because we need them for the population we have. And as far as IIMs are concerned, we have been adding them pretty regularly in the past (even though there have been some big gaps that shouldn;t have been there). IIML came in 80's I guess and I and K came in 90's. If anything, I think we have been slow in opening more such institutes. The idea is not just to have more for the sake of having more.
    We have a set system where we are sure that the best students and best teachers end up at these institutes. So, either you can put alternate mechanisms in place to get more such places where you have such confluence or you open an institute and you know that in 5years you will have best students and best teachers - all you need to do is provide infrastructure.
    I do not think that India is in a developmental stage where we can have good jobs for BA's (and I do not mean this in a derogatory way). If you want to give students a choice in College, you need to make schooling such that they are motivated to choose stuff they like. And whether you like it or not, the existential fight in India today ensures that the best students choose Engg / Medical or they go to the SRCC / Hindu / St Stephens of the world.
    The benefits of the so called forced system of education can be seen today when the engg class of India is capturing the blue collarred jobs globally.
    I think the question is more of a priority and the priority at this point is to provide a better life - even if it comes at the cost of a choice. I think its for the Greater Good.

    P.S.: Sorry for stealing so much of your real estate

  9. "You come in, get exposure to a number of different subjects (engineering, science, commerce and arts) and then in your 3rd year choose a specialisation in one or the other subject which turns you on"...this is not practicle [just an opinion]...coz already because of 5 years course of mbbs people tend to run away from it and if u implement this idea then a mbbs course will be of 81/2 years..dont u think so????....:)

  10. India had talent see these master pieces of Indian Art and Sculpture

    Great, Creative and talented

  11. I agree with Rashmi,in India we tend to compartmentalize 'Talented Courses'. I strongly feel we should have courses on the lines of Liberal Arts.The course of Liberal Arts encompasses all genres of education starting from Science, Maths,Philosophy,Sociology,History,Literature etc.

  12. hi ,

    Just started a new blog on news, sports & movie reviews

  13. a correction...

    we too at DA-IICT have a humanities department and we are not an IIT..!!

  14. "The IITs are in fact the only technical institutes with Humanities departments but these depts don't enjoy the same status and importance as others because an undergrad cannot major in these subjects. "

    I believe you've got your info wrong Rashmi. Many tech colleges do in fact have a humanities dept. The BITS-Pilani humanities dept actually has PhD professors teaching here. Economics is also very popular amongst the students.

  15. Having more IITs and IIMs in the country is not the election carrot or for the sake of having one institute in every state. Although its a much delayed decision by the government but its for the greater good. Its easy to criticize the government for each and every issue.

    Though I feel that in India the stress is always more on engineering and management because of money and tag, but with my personal experience people who have graduated from these premier institutes have the broadest prospective as compared to any other college people.
    If there is huge demand for good quality engg. institute, opening new IITs is a very good step. When you quote an example of US, how can you miss that every state has their own good quality engineering and management and Indian just crave to get an admission there as our own country lacks that. What is the harm in getting more world class institute. Though there is serious good quality faculty crunch but these things need to be sorted out.

    There is a huge gap of quality institute after IITs. Few NITs, BITS, IIIT, DCE and DAIICT and thats it. There is hardly any national level college.

  16. Well said, Rashmi. I wish the 'powers that be' read this and act on the Indian Institute of Talent concept of education. Our youth will be so much more passionate and happy experimenting with subjects and pursuing those that they are genuinely interested in. Only if... they read this blog.

  17. Oh this has basic understanding that our Indian Youth understands what they want !! .

    This education factories keep our kids busy since KG till they are through with this machines called IIT/IIM ,where they get time to think about aptitude ?

    I have not seen any single institute which conducts this kind of test at the same time there are hardly any Organization which counsels on this.

    And since day 1 of school ,the glamor and appreciation that surrounds engineering and medical , we just follow the stream.

    For example - I thought of doing M.SC. mathematics when I passed my H.SC. But because my grades were good everybody around counseled me to go for "B.E." and suggested that you can study maths there too.

    Now I am passed out and after spending a decade in IT. I am looking back to change my course.

    Though whole career graph is upward and even exponential ,I am not really happy with this.

    I took some aptitude tests and talked with experts in career-change ( So that where-ever I enter ,I should utilize my 100% potential ).

    I wonder ,why such help is not at-all available easily.

    Any comments ?

  18. I agree with you... I think what we need is institutes which make raw intellect churned into Talent ... for that we need loads of good faculty ... and I firmly believe, its' the teachers / faculty who makes all the difference in the institute and its student's caliber. Teaching profession has lost its glory - today most of the faculty are from those who lost to the competition and couldn't prove worthy of any 'job'. Once we have our mindset about the teaching profession changes, only then we can create Talent - irrespective of IIT/IIM...

    May be an Indian Institute of Faculty is needed more than IIT/IIM

  19. Its more like having schools as university and giving more time to kids to determine what they want. But, even if u give them a few more years they will still choose the more lucrative option over the more interesting option.

    As long as we do not have more parity among different fields and we have lopsided salaries for engineers or MBAs we will continue to have candidates taking up them without any love for the subject.

  20. First of all, Kudos to you, Rashmi for the innovative and wonderful post. Its a treat to the brain reading your posts.
    Heres what I have to say to add to the multitude of opinions already expressed and all of them carrying a different flavour :

    a) First of all the socialist negation of your concept: When the foundation is not strong, how do you expect the skyscraper you are building to be strong and last long. When we do not have quality primary/secondary education , how do you expect that adding more IITS is to the greater good . Arent we pandering to a a select group of people with means and resources who will gain entry, masquerade as " the best talent in the country" .In my opinion, lets first strengthen the foundation brick by brick( read quality primary education) and then work our way up to quality education at the post graduate level. This will ensure fair play and will last in the longer run.

    b) "Come to think of it, we do not have any institution in India where Arts, Commerce, Science, Engineering, Design, Music, Medicine and Management co-exist on a single campus. At best we put up techno campuses where a medical, dental and engineering may co-exist. " - My point is why do you want to create a "khichdi" institution with " the jack of all trades but master of ...." kind of products being churned out. When the focus across the world is on your "core competencies" to build on and become an expert i your chosen field, why this amalgamation of all disciplines at one lace to speak of. Let that decision be made earlier , not at the university level. in my opinion , we should have a separate university dedicated to " organic chemistry " using your terminology and let all students interested in that niche area study there. That "compartmentalisation" is for the greater good of the subject as a whole because you delve deeper in your chosen subject, meet like minded perons and get exposed to new ideas in that field .That would be truly world class education and research oriented to speak of.

    c) Finally, yes education in India is "sadly" job driven rather than choice/interest driven. Somehow makes me think that " finance" stands at the top of all disciplines because finally you come to that. No wonder that at the fag end of your academic life when you land at an IIM, your area of specialisation is Finance and an I-bank your preferred destination.:-)
    "Baba bada na bhaiya , sabse bada ......"
    (apologies for any typos)

  21. great post !
    I feel, most of them don't go to these premier institutes by choice, rather for the "chhappa". How does it matter to improve the quality? Most of them are going to be more qualified and elite "servants" only, even after these tags. What needs the education system is a "makeover" that changes the complete focus and make the individuals highly capable making a beautiful contribution to the world.

  22. Rashmi

    I totally disagree. A country like ours needs more and more centers of excellence because our strength lies in our human resource.
    America's greatest strength is not in its military might or economic strength but on its universities.
    Unlike the west, In India, corporates never invest in setting up universities. In that scenario, only govt could finance such initiatives.
    Please note that despite having IIM and IITs we are not able to produce breakthrough technologies or management concepts. So atleast take solace in the fact that more IIMs and IITs are going to come.

  23. ell said, and I was about to put in what Rishabh said regarding humanities dept. at BITS Pilani.

    And ya being in BITS for two years, I totally agree with the concept of doing your tech degrees with people with other interests, I have friends from Pharma studies, Economics, Basic Sciences..
    Gives a very balanced outlook and cuts down on any complacancy that comes in people from "tech" universities. You realize everyone's got an equally important role to play.
    Hmm.. That makes BITS sound like Indian Institute of Talant. :)

  24. Indian Institute of Talent, absolutely brilliant.

  25. While reading the post, one college that was constantly coming to my mind was BITS-Pilani (All campuses!). BITS does believe in a combination of Science, Technology, Humanities and Management. (As others have rightly pointed out before me!)

    In fact in 1964 the Birla Colleges of Arts, Commerce, Engineering, Pharmacy and Science were combined together to form what we call today as BITS-Pilani.
    Even the logo of BITS symbolizes
    Molecule (Sciences), Lotus (Humanities), Rocket (Technology)!

    And very few know, that there is a degree called "general studies" in BITS, which focuses on exactly what you said: a mix of everything! However, today's Indian society overlooks such an opportunity and wants to do a core-engg or alike degree, which is reflected in the placements of these guys as well.

    But BITS-Pilani according to me comes closest for what you asked for, there still being a large gap between the liberal arts colleges in US and any other college in India.

  26. Dear Rashmi

    Read yr blog.

    This is Raksha Bharadia. I am compiling Chicken soup for the Indian Teen soul and am still about 10 stories short. Would you like to send in something?

    Chicken soup for the Indian Teenage soul

    The themes are:

    1. Issues dealing with self esteem
    2. Peer pressure
    3. Issues dealing with drugs, money, smoking etc.
    4. Relationships with parents, friends,
    5. Tough stuff
    6. Making a Difference

    7. Going for it / Reaching for Goals

    8. A Learning which has helped you in life

    9. Overcoming obstacles
    10. Dealing with exam tension
    11. Dealing with suicidal thoughts
    This title would consist of stories, poems, and cartoons of life, love, and learning every teenager can relate to and learn from without feeling criticized or judged.
    In"Losing the ‘Us,'" sixteen-year-old Lia discovers the difficulties of finding one's individuality after ending a long-term relationship. Actress Jenny Garth describes her concept of home in "I am Home." in "Be Cool…Stay in School," Jason describes a program his school developed to prevent students from dropping out. Frank, a high school student, performs a selfless and random act of kindness in "Reaching Out to a Stranger."
    Written in common language with a non-didactic tone, Chicken Soup for the Teenage Soul offers stories that cover common teen emotions and problems. These emotions cross all ethnic, socioeconomic and gender lines.
    The write-ups need to be true life stories and can be anything between 300-1200 words.

    We carry a 4 line profile on the contributing authors along with contact info. Chicken soup for the Indian Teenage soul will be an international release. We take up blogged work and published work too.
    The stories need not be just by mothers and teenagers. Anyone can contribute.
    One can even write anonymous or in the third person.

    Please write to me on Last date of accepting submissions is 15th April 2008

    Raksha Bharadia
    p.s. You can Google search my name and know more about me.

  27. i think engg students ka itna saturation ho gay ahai ke after some years componies dont need us so itll b gr8 to stop it ......

  28. Its brilliant if someone can know what one really wants, but thats not the case with most of the people at least it was not with me. So we choose what is best suited to us economically and gives out best result... which in today`s time is i guess engineering .....

  29. completely agree with you that most people go for it only for the "chappa",the tag that comes along as our society is myopic, they think that a person is talented only if he has gone through the rigarmole of stupid entrance exams where you need some smart work and pots of luck to get through!!!!

    why the govt. isn't doling the tag to good private institutes is because the HRD wants to control every institute...they wouldn't be given a free hand and that is what most won't accept!!!!

  30. ALthought I agree with you that there should be a university or college like u are thinking for Indian Institute of Talent.. But I dont see anything wrong with more IITs and IIMs. There are millions of students in India who are not getting top quality higher education. I am no supporter of Congress but this move will help in reaching of quality education to thousand others who fail to get admission in IITs or IIMs despite their hard work.

    On the question of why top talent goes to engg , medical and medicine I must say that in India before year 1995 these were the only option to get a good job .. and after u have ur job ,u can go and do anything else that you would like to do as hobby..

    India now also need that many quality engineers as it was needed earlier.. havent you heard so many times the cries of IT and engineering industry leaders that they arent getting good quality guys.. I think you are not that much aware of tactics uses by private educators in engineering and medicine.. they loot the innocent candidates and doesnt provide much facilities and practicals in return..

    Besides IITs govt should focus on providing quality primary education to all indians as in my view thats the root of all evil in India. unless u give good primary education the problems like reservation, corruption, non abiding with laws, criminals and corrupts getting elected will continue forever.. education only gives that much mind to distinguish between good and bad.. and I think given a choice people will choose good over bad..

    Hemant Dubey

  31. This comment has been removed by the author.

  32. one thing is u write good...and good analogies at some places but get yourself some life(or may be u earn through this blog....then its fine)....u wont ever understand an iitian because u need to be an iitian ! whatever u said is true but its rather half truth// but neways keep on writing...the "chhappa" thing is all bullshit....i know u wont publish my comment but thats ok...i just want u to know..

    Zubin Mehta.

  33. Hmm... nice post ... but I will agree with Zubin, although you write well, you are not sticking to the facts , the idea of introducing the western style education is good... but if ou have ever been to an IIT , you will understand that it actually is already persisting there, except for the regular courses, people have option to pursue any of there interests. I agree , you have to go through a tough JEE to enter IITs and hence not everyone gets a chance to live an IITians college life but you have to draw a line somewhere in some form. Whatever system you introduce, even the western ones, the better colleges will have some entrance criteria... if not JEE , SATs or something else. So, atleast by increasing the no. of IITs , govt. is trying to give chance to more no. of people ...

    anyways , that was a real good post to read.

  34. You are doing great job. Lot of problems could be solved just by writing a mail or blog (bloody politicians are hearing this!!!) people should convey their feelings to netas than some effect will be there though some but would be helpful in solving many problems. Please also try to put light on pathetic conditions of roads in India.

    Though I have abhorrent towards ministers but I do e-mail them views and suggestions. God knows whether they are reading or not. But from my inside I am satisfied being a citizen I am doing something right. I would like to give an example of what e-mail can do (I don't remember exact match and event, sorry!!! for that) in one match of football referee wrong decision and supporters of those team who were victim of referee flooded the governing body with many such e-mails that they need to close down the websites as it was totally jammed. This what we could do it with our facade netas who pretend to be servant of public. We may emulate it a with BCCI. We have 20 million net users and controversial decisions would put BCCI under scanner.

    Please suggest some good technology blog. Though I am purchasing "Digit" every month but due to inflation just joking!!! . I am not be able to get such type of articles which would be paisa vasool according price of magazine (rs. 125) is my mail id... I would be awaiting for your e-mail. Till then keep blogging and keep putting much more articles

  35. I don't agree with this... the idea of opening new IIT's and IIM's is to reduce the stress that is being implemented on candidates due to strong competition and less oppurtunity to get into higher colleges.

    And who says technocrates have less options once they fall into engineering doesn't matter in what type of college you are ... you will get what you want if you desire to be so.

    And about the course structures i would like to suggest that look at the course structure of DAIICT. and other private colleges like BITS...~~~

  36. rashmi, very much reminded of the Aamir Khan flick taare zameen par! I wanted to add that the strict focus on tech subjects has disadvantages for society as a whole, next to for the individual:

    - discussion, negotiation & teamwork skills are neglected and this affects workforce's softer capabilities. It is more difficult to work in a team if you encounter this situation for the first time in an actual job, instead of in school projects.
    - jobs that have a bias against them as compared to tech careers, are less in demand. However, these jobs are also necessary for a society to function well, but are neglected. i.e. the communications, hospitality industry to name just two
    - If an individual has little to no talent or interest in a field, the returns on that individual for a firm will also be little to nothing, as opposed to someone who is good at it. And interest helps to be good at something (& vice versa)

    As a summary, my point is that it's not just individuals' interests at stake here, it's our collective performance, too. This would perhaps be a better argument at a policy level why we should invest in our education system differently

  37. I have been following the comments ,and the comments and the post surely reflect that as most of u have never expereinced life inside an IIT or IIM ,u really don't have rites to comment.
    We don't need to explain and justify our existence and work here.
    Those who have seen the IIT system work ,really would appreciate more IIT's around definitely not in every state but at least another 7 more.
    The concept of Chappa, beleive u me its so outdated.
    And those who feel that its not worth building an IIT or an IIM ,beleive u me u would continue to feel like that for the rest of ur lives ,untill and unless u really go and spend a year or so at these places.
    But unfortunately some of u wud take this as AN ATTITUDNAL POST.
    what ever may be the sentiments for this post,the entire point of posting comments on something u dont know..its really sad.

    INTELLECTUAL MATURITY--does it really exist??
    We are talking of starting with the BEST COLLEGES in the world, for ourselves,but some just dont want it ..
    Amazing isnt it ..??

  38. Rashmi,

    The entire point in choosing the course "in demand" rather than the course which you like is governed by job placements, as you correctly pointed out. But I would disagree that the solution lies in creating talent institutes of excellence (like the engineering & management institutes of excellence we already have) where a minority of the students get excellent education while the rest are left behind. Let the government spend maximum budget on primary education, the no child left behind scheme be focussed on compulsary quality primary education to all. Higher education can be left to the private players and they can handle thing on their own.

    In the US, there is no dearth of jobs even at the lower level. The minimum wage is USD 7/hr which translates to USD 14,000 per year for a 2,000 hr work year. These are the people who work in Mcdonalds, Walmart, etc. Translating it to Indian currency on a PPP basis, it works out to 2 lakh rupees per annum. Even then, there is a dearth of workers willing to work at minimum wage in the US. This is a so called safety net which ensures that people will not fall below a certain standard of living even if they choose a course which has absolutely no demand.

    So, a comparison of the Indian educational system is flawed because we cannot guarantee a Rs. 2 lakh per annum job to everyone in India.

    Further, companies in the US are willing to hire Arts graduates, economics graduates as well as engineering graduates for all kinds of jobs (consulting, finance, marketing et al) even though the person may not specialize in those fields. In India, I do not see this happening at all.

    Also, I see no harm in deciding what to study based on the job prospects rather than the interest, primarily because the jobs are in short supply, despite the opening up of the economy. I had a great attraction for Geography, but there was hardly any scope for the subject when I completed my 10th std. There was no way anyone would even consider offering me a reasonable career then. So, i had to choose science and slog it to make the IITJEE cutoff because that was where the money was.

    It was a choice between living as a pauper (INR 6,000 a month as a lecturer in some college after doing a Masters in Geography) vs. a YUPPY (An IIT engineer with 2-3 years work ex makes INR 40,000 a month on an average). I doubt anyone would choose to be a pauper and study the subject of his choice.

  39. One can do an Integrated M.Sc. in Economics from IIT Kharagpur, which is offered by Humanities department.

  40. i really like your approach to this. The posts that follow are equally sensible.

  41. I think we need more IIT and IIM as there is more demand for engineering and managment graduates. I think it will reduce the pay and competitiveness of the premium engineers and managers by increasing supply. I hope this will ensure that India continues to remain cheap and competitive ;)

  42. I think we should leave the number of IIT's and IIM's where they are for the forseeable future. They have proven a point and set the benchmarks. If the governments aim is social justice let them provide space to the private sector to chip in and provide subsidised education to the target group of the society to whom the government can then hand out sarkari naukris ( though i do strongly believe that sarkari naukris have been coming down in proportion to total number of naukris for the past fifteen years)



    and how about also throwing a few LAKHS of Indian Institues of PRIMARY EDUCATION.

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  48. Hello!

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