Wednesday, May 17, 2006

The right to a ‘good’ school

Scarier than a performance appraisal.

More stressful than a root canal.

It's a absurd, it's insane…

It's your 4 year old's nursery school interview.


But what to do? Mere bachche ka admission is every urban parent's fondest dream and festering nightmare. “Seats are few, kids too many”. So schools do what they have to, and parents, what they deem fit. Like sending your toddler to the right Montessori, so she can tell the difference between herbivore' and 'carnivore' in the interview.

Although it's the parents who need the coaching. Because, clearly, they're the ones really being ‘interviewed'.

So what's new? Why even write about a problem which seems to be endemic and intractable... Like policemen taking hafta. Like electricity gul in summer. Like Himesh on every radio station.

What’s new is the ban by the Delhi High Court on nursery interviews. But even as parents sigh in relief, bigger questions arise. How is a school with 500 seats to deal with 3000 applicants?

Ashok Agarwal, the counsel who fought this landmark case believes banning interviews is just one of the many system corrections required. The next step is the concept of neighbourhood schools. Meaning a school admits children residing within a 3 km radius only.

Such a school would take in, by draw of lots, a far wider spectrum of children. Not just people who drive the same cars as us, but the kids of drivers.

It’s not that radical an idea – I attended exactly that kind of school.

The mixed bag
Today, south Bombay parents will literally sell their souls, to get their child into a Campion, Cathedral, J B Petit, St Mary’s or Bombay International.

I too grew up in south Bombay but attended an ‘ordinary’ school. Because it was a good school, and the one most conveniently located.

The definition of ‘good’ - for my parents - was a sense of discipline, good teachers, good results. St Joseph’s High School, Colaba had all of that. And something more. St Joseph’s had a mixed bunch of students.

There were children of naval officers, and children from servant’s quarters. A busload of scientists’ kids and a busload from chi chi Cuffe Parade. From rich to middle class to poor – we had children from across the social spectrum. And that’s just the way it was, no one felt awkward about it.

Twenty years to the day I passed out of school, I reconnected with a guy from my class.. This chap has really fond memories of his schooldays - I don’t. He was one of the cool kids, I was the nerd with thick glasses.

Faizal gets pretty emotional when he speaks of St Joseph’s. Yet, he is not sending his two daughters to his alma mater. “It’s not the same anymore,” he says sadly.

The definition of ‘good’ has changed. Brand names matter. Even the board your kid’s school is affiliated to is a concern. ICSE is in demand, so schools are bowing out of the State Board. St Joseph’s gets government funding and hence, valiantly struggles on.

St Joseph’s still wishes to cater to the poor and underprivileged. But doing so without the presence of children from the educated and upper class puts the school at a disadvantage. St Joseph’s cannot attract the same caliber of teachers – after all teachers too care about brand names!

The parent as consumer
The paradigm shift in the parent’s thinking is the idea that education too is a consumer product. I am no exception.

The first school I selected for my daughter was a neighbourhood school. It is not the ‘best’ school in the area it was chosen because of proximity to the crèche my daughter attended . And because she was eligible despite being born in August.

When I first visited St XXX high school in Vashi, the clean and airy building impressed me. There was a very short and friendly admission interview. My daughter was accepted.

But over a period of time, several things about the school started bothering me. In theory, I had no problem with a school which admitted students from a cross-section of society. In practice, I found that there was a compromise in that amorphous but all-important variable known as 'standards'.

The nursery class had 60 plus students. What’s more, there were two shifts in a day, so teachers were clearly over worked. ‘Miss’ snapped and scolded rather too often. And she spoke English with a thick Keralite accent.

The following year we yanked Nivedita out of St XXX and put her in another school.

This school is 8 kms away (though only a 15 minute bus ride). It is affiliated to the CBSE board and boasts really amazing results. Plus, the kids are mainly from 'professional' and middle class families. To be honest, I do feel more comfortable in a school with more ‘People Like Us’.

I tried the neighbourhood approach – it failed me. Perhaps because I, as an educated, aware and exposed parent, expected more from the school than the majority. Who seemed happy enough to be sending their kids to a ‘convent’.

I could have stuck it out and my child would probably not be any worse for the wear. The new school does not fulfils all my expectations either. (43 students in a class is still way too many). But I feel like I ‘did something’, that I did the best I could for my child.

It’s this kind of thinking that has created the ghettos. Schools for the haves and schools for the have nots.

And now, schools for those who have more than most. The IB (International Baccalaureate) school.

Everyone wants a Headstart
In theory, my child will blossom because she is a rosebud and that is her destiny. But as a parent I worry about whether she is getting enough sunshine, water and fresh air. The question is, is the soil in certain schools more fertile? Are the gardeners in these schools more skilful, more sensitive?

The answer is – I don’t know. The teaching methods, the facilities, the more one-on-one approach in the IB schools surely has its benefits. But, there’s a downside, depending on which philosophy of life you espouse.

As author Po Bronson writes, “There are two schools of thought over what role a family plays in preparing a child for the world…Rousseau believed that early humans’ experience was idyllic before it became corrupted by modern stresses. Hobbes believed that early humans’ experience was nasty, brutish and short…”

“A family adhering to the Rousseau philosophy prepares its children for the outside world by creating a safe haven from judgement and antagonism. A family adhering to the Hobbes philosophy prepares its children for the outside world by being a representative microcosm of what is to come…”

“You can expose your children to too much,” concludes Bronson. “But you can also shield them too much”.

The same applies to schooling. Children who attend carefully selected schools with air conditioned classrooms where learning is always a pleasure and teachers only kind and understanding, may be underprepared for the real world.

The case for diversity
But that’s just a point of view. What’s more important, in my opinion, is the effort which all schools must make to become more inclusive. Whether they are IB or ICSE, CBSE or SSC, all schools must take in a percentage of children from disadvantaged backgrounds.

The burden of their fees can be cross-subsidised by those who can afford to pay. Education 'cess' is all well and good. But charity can and must begin in our children's schools.

A step in this direction was taken in an April 2004 judgement in the Supreme Court (case: Modern School vs Govt of India and others). The court ruled that all recognised unaided private schools in Delhi, which had availed of land at concessional rates, must admit 25 % of the total intake of students from the economically weaker sections.

A significant verdict in light of the fact that 1200 of the 1500 'private unaided schools' in Delhi had, in fact, availed of such concessions.

However, both schools and parents cried foul. The list of ‘problems’ cited by school managements in implementing the order are many. The switch from Hindi-medium to English, the question of who will bear the expenses (even if we waive tuition fees). Lack of conducive home environment and parental support.

All true - but problems which can be tackled.

“Moreover children are very sensitive and dealing with the psychological stress of being in the same class with other, financially better-off students can be very difficult,” said Mr S L Jain, Principal, Mahavir Senior Model School in an interview to India Together.

But is that really the case? A study titled ‘Poor’ Children in ‘Rich’ Schools looked into the implementation of the 20% freeships to economically marginalized children in private, unaided schools in East Delhi. The study, published by the Institute of Social Studies Trust (ISST) in October 2005, also documents the difficulties and challenges faced by the Trust while assisting BPL families in getting their kids admitted to such schools.

The study concluded that the children themselves did not have trouble adjusting to the new socio-cultural environment . Says Amita Joshi, a field officer with ISST, “The slum children are accepted by their peers. It is the teachers and the principals who segregate and discriminate.”

The study notes: “ISST personnel had to make repeated visits to schools in the neighbourhood (with parents not even being allowed to enter school premises) to request the school authorities to admit children belonging to BPL familes… What was particularly shocking was the prejudiced mindset of school principals towards children of slum dwellers”.

One principal went so as far as stating that ‘ slum children are ‘criminals’ and ‘use abusive language’.

ISST has succeeded in securing admissions for 50 children, using weapons such as the Right to Information Act. Two years after the Supreme Court verdict, ISST estimates less than 10% of the seats in private unaided schools have been filled by economically weaker sections of society.

The study finds these lucky few are grateful to be in a school where ‘teacher dande se nahin maarti’ and toilets are clean. ‘Jahan teacher gaaliyan nahin dete, homework dete hain’. And most importantly, ‘padaai hoti hai’.

Things that our children take for granted...

We must begin somewhere
As I write this, medical students are out on the streets, protesting against OBC reservations. Like most thinking people in this country, I too am against further caste-based quotas. Let the basis of affirmative action be economics. And let it be at primary school level, we say.

In which case the time has come to ask: "Can we accept the idea of quotas in our children's schools?"

I think we must.

This post originally appeared as a column on rediff.com - May 17, 2005

24 comments:

  1. well, half of the problem begins with the fact that people study in so many different languages with little or no importance given to English until they reach 12th. how do you expect a person who has learnt Malayalam for half of his existence to suddenly understand stuff being taught in English in higher educational institutes? I'm talking about people from rural areas.

    Neways, nice article as always.

    ReplyDelete
  2. Rashmi, I went to a very similar school such as yours in Delhi. St Columba's - which while it has historically (used to) produce toppers always admitted a very large number of children from economically poorer sections of society. We had the super-rich, the kids of professionals (like me) and the kids of guys who were clerks or bus drivers.
    Yes, while the argument of an unstable social mix is valid - if the kids are foisted together in KG it really isn't a big deal (OK, leaving aside the occasional stolen pencilbox or whatever). Yes, though that said as we grew older - there were certain 'class' issues, don't know how to quite elucidate but there were problems - money is important y'know. The only major academic problem is that many of the not-so-well off kids can't afford the tuitions that they needed (good school or not, the teachers were pathetic) to do well and ensure a better life or at least a better college. However, those of them that were smart managed to do very well for themselves.
    Yet, I spent one hour a day for the privilege to go to that school. My parents had no issue with the class mix yet would have had palpitations against sending me to the local 'public school'. SCS wasn't expensive mind you, in fact, chances are that the local schools were more expensive - but education is also often about the 'thappa' you get. What also - it is all about the 'thappa' you get at times (and also the friends you make, but thats another argument). The argument for the 3-km radius will be quite interesting to watch if it is adhered to - and more interesting to see what impact it has on house prices. Because in the UK and the US - school districts and the quality of the local school can determine housing prices.
    Interesting post.

    ReplyDelete
  3. No quotas in anything anywhere. That's what I think.

    The best way to help the underpriviledged is appropriate reallocation of resources and the enforcement of common sense with fair and balanced laws. At a very simple level, our government is a spendthrift. The money that comes in taxes is abused. The infrastructure projects. The public health care system. The education system. All that money that is spent but never seems to quite result in the desired product. It never gets to the underpriviledged. That's the real problem. If that issue was fixed, and reallocation of wealth, prevention of theft and abuse was actually enforced, then there would be a rapid rise in the education level and skillset among the formerly underpriviledged since they would actually be able to pull in teachers and generate income without having it be stolen away from them.

    It's all the corruption and dirt like that that needs to be removed. Things like reservations are the traditional way of creating opportunies for corruption. That is, restrict the supply of a desired good (education) and then start charging rent (some group of rich and powerful people obviously want control over who gets those quota spots, don't they? guess who's going to be paying them money to get their kids those spots). This is why I'm against reservations.

    I believe ultimately, a government has no business being in the business of education. A government ought to be in the business of ensuring that the public infrastructure is fully functional. Educational services can be handled by the private sector. Clearly, the private sector has proven that in things like cellphone access, they were far more able to bring cellphones to the rural poor than any govermental effort. I believe the same thing is true of education.

    So. No reservations anywhere or anytime!

    ps: my apologies for being so verbose.

    ReplyDelete
  4. Nice Post.
    I am also against further quota. But at the same I would like to say the even the current quota is going in the hands of needy. They are going in the hands of who don't need these.

    I agree with Rashmi that this method would help to remove discrimination from society. But this method be effective in next 8-10 years if implemented today. What about today ?

    Jayakumar has pointed to right direction for today. But I don't blame only politicians for corruption. Its the complete system and we are also the part of system. In this regard, I fully agree with Mr. President's views that its we. We need to change.

    ReplyDelete
  5. "It’s this kind of thinking that has created the ghettos. Schools for the haves and schools for the have nots. " I completely agree. Something like this is already seen in the US where private schools are very expensive and not affordable to a large part of middle class and public schools are the only option. The public schools are accessible to people living in a certain distance from the school. So what has happened is the real estate prices around the school areas go up and good schools anyway become inaccessible to lower class children thereby causing the ghetto effect. Nice and thought provoking post.

    ReplyDelete
  6. I totally agree wid on the prevailin situation abt admissions in schools, its a mess.. and no matter wht regulation, Money always wins...
    I m 4m a mixed school, with rich and poor children not being a dividing category, infact v came 2 know so many things 4m them.. V realised the importance of money, and it was all so wonderful...
    The quota thing is a dreadful thing 2 happen.. and should b avoided at all cost...

    ReplyDelete
  7. How true. The small town school that I attended had 80 students in class 11, which reduced to 65 in class 12. The average class size hovered around 65 across all standards.

    I might get married next year, makes me think whether we should have kids or not. :-(

    I am thanking God. We still dont have reservations at school level. Tathastu. Amen. (bowing down)

    ReplyDelete
  8. Very Nice and important Article.
    I say......Whats the point in the first place of going to a school?..... when most of them don't teach properly & ultimately every student has to visit tution Classes to learn their subjects?So parents end up paying school fees, tution fees!!
    I think its high time that parents think about Home Schooling seriously.Moreover the Schools are more of a money making machine now a days.(E.g. recently there was furore when a socalled good school in Calcutta made it mandetory for kids to wear shoes of a particular Western SportsWear brand!!!!!

    ReplyDelete
  9. Hi Rashmi,
    I read your blog occasionally and just wanted to let you know that your blog is really special for Indians living outside India. Really gives the lowdown on what the country is talking about. Keep up the good job. Have linked your blog to mine. Cheers.
    Shikha

    ReplyDelete
  10. good post Rashmi. i like your posts which do not tells us about IIMs.

    quota or non quota, school system in india needs revival. i beleive that an individuals fate is decided more by primary schooling he gets than which business school he attends.

    ReplyDelete
  11. Saw tht u r on Rediff Chat on this issue... by 2:29 PM the room got full & no entry board was put up. There goes another chance to chat to u... anyways u'r blogs are gr8 & different. Keep it up..

    ReplyDelete
  12. Rashmi,

    Primary education is a completely different issue. However, I oppose any quotas in privately run schools. The government can set up many primary schools with the resource it wastes on quota students who go to IITs and IIMs.

    As far as reservations in higher education is concerned, our stand is a firm 0%, even in tax payer funded institutes. You have to ask yourself, funded by whose taxes?

    We often forget that India is a welfare state. 90% of our Government aids and welfare programs are already directed towards you know who.

    ReplyDelete
  13. I urge everyone to read Atanu Dey's article on this issue. It's very well thought out and it points out the actual core of the issue.
    http://indianeconomy.org/2006/05/14/imagine-no-reservations/

    ReplyDelete
  14. Maam

    I have myself been to eight differrent schools from Jr. KG to 12th Standard. What I want to say is that in higher classes Tution which is considered to be necessary wether you are studying in any school is not affordable by the students who belong to economically weaker sections.

    This is one of the most important problem which has to be tackled for secondary and higher secondary education. And frankly speaking Schools generally run by missionaries ie St. XXX donot discriminate between students bet it authorities or teachers in those schools.

    ReplyDelete
  15. 'The slum children are accepted by their peers. It is the teachers and the principals who segregate and discriminate'

    Agreed 100%. Kids <5 years or so dont diff if ur white/black or come from i dunno worli or some slum in mumbai. At that age they see everyone as one. As they grow older its their very own parents and ^%$^%4 society that poions the mind. Sad.

    ReplyDelete
  16. "Let the basis of affirmative action be economics. And let it be at primary school level, we say."-- that is the most important point... not nursery interviews or reservations in AIIMS IIT or IIM they will take care of themselves... foundation is everything...
    we in india subsidise higher educationalmost across the board, look at tution fees in delhi university
    i will give u an example.. i went to college of business studies in delhi university, probably the best professional college of the country at under gratuate level.. and you know what was my monthly tution fee Rs 15/-, i am not telling u a guzre zamane ki kahani i passed out in 2001... and u know what was the fees of closest rival private college Rs. 20,000/- and it wasnt even a contest in terms of quality... i understand it was based merit and i had to clear a strict entrance test and all.... but still graduation is a luxury, it should not be subsidised for everyone who is meritious... maybe who cant afford it...
    what we should subsidise is high quality schooling... we should find a way to make private schools affordable to each an every person.. i have very little first hand experience of govt. school but it is safe to say they lack in a lot of areas and generally speaking students from govt college start out on a back foot while competing in real life wether it is higher education or jobs... so why not privatise them.. probably the simplest way to efficiently use the existing infrastructure... put reservations for admissions, give out school vouchers.. do anything it takes.. but improve the level of elementary education...if we could do this... this wud be the single biggest acheivement of our generation for the future of our country...
    imagine what a force india would be if 100% of kids have school education even if that means we have to sacrifise some amount in our higher education...

    just another thought all money spent on education of kids should be tax deductable...

    ReplyDelete
  17. Hi Reshmi,

    I was pained to you one of your comments "And she spoke English with a thick Keralite accent" Had it been a thick spanish accent/or a heavy Irish accent, would it have affected you the same way?.

    Or do you think that a Mumbai/Delhi accent is the best and is closest to the way queen herself spoke the language?

    You of all people who ridicules prejudice could have done better without the said prejudice..

    Regards

    Sunil Jose Gregory

    (Yes, I am a Keralite and I am not ashamed of the way I speak English)

    ReplyDelete
  18. well said sunil jose.
    and an advice to rashmi to keep her articles kinda short in length.

    ReplyDelete
  19. We have set up a blog http://mumbaischooladmisssion.blogspot.com.
    This is a community blog aimed at providing parents with updated and authentic information on schools and admission information for the same. The idea is to cover all 800 schools in Mumbai, Navi Mumbai and Thane. Pls do visit the blog and share it with others and do contribute information on the schools which you are aware of.
    Thks

    Parul

    ReplyDelete
  20. mam, iam in 10 grade i want to do IB, but the problem is that if i want to study in india i have heard that the colleges dont accept IB, is that true??? what is the solution for this.....and i dont want to study in an indian board.

    ReplyDelete
  21. 减速机 齿轮减速机 SEW减速机 摆线针轮减速机 蜗轮蜗杆减速机 interlining
    明星代言 明星经纪公司
    制动单元 铝壳电阻
    modern abstract art sofa manufacturer
    净水器 开水器 净水机 净水 软水机 软水 直饮机 家用净水 家用净水器 家用净水机 中央净水 中央净水器 水家装 水家电 水卫士 混合机
    过滤机 DHL快递 俄罗斯签证 回转支承 Laser marking
    保险箱 法兰 法兰标准
    polycarbonate sheet 回流焊 波峰焊
    压球机 注册上海公司 儿童摄影
    牛皮癣 皮肤病 制氮机
    食堂售餐机 校园一卡通
    学校一卡通 ic卡售饭机
    食堂售饭机 深圳一卡通
    广东售饭机 机电设备安装
    北京发票 代开发票
    餐饮发票 住宿发票
    广告发票
    网络电话 免费网络电话
    假发 补发
    织发 植发
    压滤机 板框压滤机
    蒸馏水机 纯蒸气发生器
    上海搬家公司 上海搬场公司
    大众搬家 大众搬场
    张家界旅游 香港旅游
    深圳旅行社 打包机
    收缩机 对讲机 电源模块
    血管栓塞剂
    售饭机 水控机 水控器
    萎缩性胃炎 neoprene laptop bags
    SEO优化
    SEO优化 计量泵
    胃炎 胃病
    冷水机 冰水机
    工业冷水机
    北京特价机票 北京打折计票 北京国际机票
    北京机票预定 北京飞机票
    北京订机票 北京机票查询 饮料机械
    银杏 水培花卉 企业宣传片 空分设备
    化工泵 离心机
    电话交换机 程控交换机 集团电话 集装袋
    混合机 混合机
    混合机捏合机 捏合机
    捏合机导热油炉 导热油炉
    导热油炉 反应釜 反应釜
    反应釜 spherical roller bearing
    搬运车 搬运车 电动搬运车 油桶搬运车 堆高车 电动堆高车 半电动堆高车 堆垛车
    高空作业平台车 电动叉车 平衡重叉车 前移叉车 电瓶叉车
    韩国饰品批发 模块电源
    X架 超薄灯箱> 易拉宝 展柜制作
    代理服务器 游戏加速器 网络加速器
    网通加速器 电信加速器 电信网通转换器
    电信网通加速器 网通电信互转
    网通电信互通 网络游戏加速器
    美国VPN代理 美国独享VPN 美国独享IP
    pvc ceiling panel Spherical roller bearings
    SEO优化
    安全鞋 劳保鞋 防砸鞋 电绝缘鞋 上海安全鞋 上海劳保鞋 江苏劳保鞋
    服装软件 服装管理软件 进销存软件
    进销存管理软件 服装管理系统 服装进销存软件
    进销存系统 进销存管理系统 免费进销存软件
    吉林中医 东北特产
    打包机
    阳痿 阴茎短小 阴茎增大
    早泄 前列腺炎 阴茎增粗 阴茎延长
    国际机票 上海国际机票
    国际特价机票 国际打折机票
    砂磨机 砂磨机
    砂磨机 卧式砂磨机
    卧式砂磨机 卧式砂磨机
    三辊研磨机 三辊研磨机
    三辊研磨机 混合机 混合机
    混合机 锥形混合机 锥形混合机 锥形混合机 行星动力混合机 行星动力混合机 行星动力混合机 无重力混合机 无重力混合机 无重力混合机
    干粉砂浆设备 干粉砂浆设备
    干粉砂浆设备 捏合机 捏合机 捏合机 导热油炉 导热油炉 导热油炉 反应釜 反应釜 反应釜 搪玻璃反应釜 搪玻璃反应釜 搪玻璃反应釜
    乳化机 涂料设备 干混砂浆设备 无重力混合机 胶体磨 涂料成套设备 双螺旋混合机
    北京婚庆 北京婚庆公司
    400电话
    办证 呼吸机 制氧机
    亚都 亚都加湿器 亚都净化器
    亚都装修卫士
    饰品批发 小饰品批发 韩国饰品 韩国饰品批发 premature ejaculation penis enlargement
    安利产品 马来西亚留学
    网站优化 网站推广
    衬布
    代写论文
    代写论文
    论文代写 代写论文
    磁力泵
    离心泵
    化工泵
    隔膜泵
    螺杆泵
    潜水泵
    油泵
    耐腐蚀泵
    水泵
    拖链 防护罩 排屑机 塑料拖链 钢铝拖链
    化工离心泵
    计量加油泵
    自吸式离心泵
    管道油泵
    自吸式排污泵
    潜水排污泵
    自吸式磁力泵
    耐高温磁力泵
    不锈钢多级离心泵
    多级离心泵
    耐腐蚀自吸泵
    自吸化工泵
    玻璃钢液下泵
    液下式排污泵
    卧式离心清水泵
    氟塑料磁力泵
    磁力驱动循环泵
    耐腐蚀污水泵
    卧式化工离心泵
    玻璃钢耐酸泵
    防爆管道油泵
    不锈钢多级泵
    立式多级离心泵
    塑料磁力泵
    水泵厂
    手摇油泵
    上海水泵厂
    上海水泵
    离心泵厂家
    热水泵
    清水泵
    气动隔膜泵
    深圳装饰 深圳装饰公司 深圳装修公司
    特价机票 打折机票 国际机票
    机票
    新风换气机 换气机 立式新风换气机 风机箱 新风系统 能量回收机
    搅拌机 混合机 乳化机
    分散机
    毛刷 毛刷辊 工业毛刷 刷子 钢丝刷
    涂层测厚仪 硬度计
    兆欧表 激光测距仪
    测振仪 转速表
    温湿度计 风速仪
    超声波测厚仪
    粗糙度仪
    噪音计 红外测温仪
    万用表
    硬度计 万用表
    美容院 美容加盟
    澳洲留学 澳大利亚留学
    什么是法兰
    电烤箱
    酒店预定 北京酒店预定 北京酒店
    离心机
    nail equipment nail products nail product nail uv lamp nail uv lamp nail uv lamps uv nail lamp nail brush
    nail file nail tool nail tip nail gel curing uv lamps lights
    万用表 风速仪
    红外测温仪 噪音计
    苗木价格 苗木信息 标牌制作 深圳标牌 北京儿童摄影 防静电鞋 淘宝刷信誉
    威海凤凰湖 威海海景房 大庆密封件
    打标机 淘宝刷信誉 TESOL/TEFL国际英语教师证书 英语教师进修及培训 北京快递公司 北京国际快递

    ReplyDelete
  22. 导热油炉吴桥县导热油炉锅有限责任公司是全国最大的生产导热油炉生产基地之一,公司主要生产各种导热油炉锅,熔盐炉, 转盘轴承,管式加热炉,蒸汽发生器,一二类压力容器.徐州回转支承 公司提供转盘轴承 --slewing ring slewing bearing slewing bearings服务. automation-industrial-industrial automation-slewing bearingslewing bearings
    铁路
    轨道交通
    太阳能
    电源

    ReplyDelete
  23. ^^ nice blog!! ^@^

    徵信, 徵信網, 徵信社, 徵信社, 徵信社, 徵信社, 感情挽回, 婚姻挽回, 挽回婚姻, 挽回感情, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信, 捉姦, 徵信公司, 通姦, 通姦罪, 抓姦, 抓猴, 捉猴, 捉姦, 監聽, 調查跟蹤, 反跟蹤, 外遇問題, 徵信, 捉姦, 女人徵信, 女子徵信, 外遇問題, 女子徵信, 徵信社, 外遇, 徵信公司, 徵信網, 外遇蒐證, 抓姦, 抓猴, 捉猴, 調查跟蹤, 反跟蹤, 感情挽回, 挽回感情, 婚姻挽回, 挽回婚姻, 外遇沖開, 抓姦, 女子徵信, 外遇蒐證, 外遇, 通姦, 通姦罪, 贍養費, 徵信, 徵信社, 抓姦, 徵信, 徵信公司, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信公司, 徵信社, 徵信公司, 女人徵信, 外遇

    徵信, 徵信網, 徵信社, 徵信網, 外遇, 徵信, 徵信社, 抓姦, 徵信, 女人徵信, 徵信社, 女人徵信社, 外遇, 抓姦, 徵信公司, 徵信社, 徵信社, 徵信社, 徵信社, 徵信社, 女人徵信社, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 女子徵信社, 女子徵信社, 女子徵信社, 女子徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信,

    徵信, 徵信社,徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 外遇, 抓姦, 離婚, 外遇,離婚,

    徵信, 外遇, 離婚, 徵信社, 徵信, 外遇, 抓姦, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 外遇, 徵信社, 徵信, 外遇, 抓姦, 徵信社, 征信, 征信, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 征信, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信社, 徵信社, 徵信, 外遇, 抓姦, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信,

    ReplyDelete

Disqus for Youth Curry - Insight on Indian Youth