Friday, March 03, 2006

AICTE: Waking up from 61 years of slumber

May a million flowers bloom, said Chairman Mao. And one day, on a whim, he went and razed the garden.

In India, flowers and gardens remain scarce but a million other things bloom. Illegal construction. Unregulated educational institutions. Until one fine day, someone wakes up and commands, "Hatao!"

But this is not China, so people take to the streets in protest. Like the students of Satyabhama engineering college and SRM Institute of Science and Technology - both deemed universities. Hundreds of students of these colleges held demonstrations demanding to know the status and validity of their degrees.

This follows a notice from AICTE (All India Council for Technical Education) which apparently states that B.Tech degrees awarded by deemed universities would not be recognised, unless the courses were approved by the council

Students of the Dr MGR Deemed University and Bharat Engineering College had gone on strike for four days on the same issue, a few days ago.

The colleges are battling it out in court, and say that since they have UGC approval they do not come under the purview of AICTE.

What took so long?
The sad part is, in all these ‘technical’ discussions of eligibility and approval, the fate of thousands of students who took admission in good faith hangs in balance.

We do need a regulatory body but clearly, AICTE is like an old and toothless ayah running around and shouting, “Children, don’t be naughty.” What else can one say about a regulatory body which, Kumbhakaran-like, awakes from its stupor once every 5 decades or so?

Did you know that All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) was first set-up in November 1945??!!! Yup, that’s what it says on their website and honestly it was news to me.

AICTE was meant to be: "a national level Apex Advisory Body to conduct survey on the facilities on technical education and to promote development in the country in a coordinated and integrated manner."

But something, somewhere went awry. So…

The Government of India (Ministry of Human Resource Development) constituted a National Working Group to look into the role of AICTE in the context of proliferation of technical institutions, maintenance of standards and other related matters. The Working Group recommended that AICTE be vested with the necessary statutory authority for making it more effective, which would consequently require restructuring and strengthening with necessary infrastructure and operating mechanisms.

Wonderful. Is that why AICTE is suddenly getting so active? Er, not exactly. These recommendations were made in 1987 !! The AICTE Act came into force a year later…

The statutory All India Council for Technical Education was established on May 12, 1988 with a view to proper planning and coordinated development of technical education system throughout the country, the promotion of qualitative improvement of such education in relation to planned quantitative growth and the regulation and proper maintenance of norms and standards in the technical education system and for matters connected therewith.

Phew – quite a mouhful. But no one has a clue where AICTE was in the 1990s when engineering, management and medical colleges were mushrooming all over the country.

Many of these colleges were started by politicians, and flouted every conceivable norm (‘technical institutes’ in sheds with tin roofs for example – that was the state of some colleges in New Bombay when they first came up). Money and muscle power ensured AICTE looked the other way.

Now, the powers that be are keen to rectify the situation. AICTE is publishing notice after notice in newspapers imploring technical institutes to apply for accreditation – and threatening legal action against those who do not comply. But colleges are thinking, we’re all in it together – can they really shut down hundreds of us?

Well, Amity Business School’s flagship PGDM course actually lost its AICTE accreditation in September 2005 after failing to meet prescribed norms. Amity also lost the subsequent case in the Allahabad High Court challenging the AICTE order.

But surely in the course of an entire year it could not have been the only institute found unworthy of accreditation? Why was so much speed shown in revoking Amity’s accreditation while others receive only threats and warnings??

The point being that unless AICTE is perceived as being fair, impartial and speedy in its actions it will never be taken seriously.

Secondly, however badly a college may have sinned revoking accreditation in the middle of an academic year is senseless. All such announcements must be made before the start of a session and must apply to new admissions – not students already enrolled!

The Tamil Nadu tangle
I don’t have an intimate knowledge of the scene in Tamil Nadu but I do know that SRM and Satyabhama were – at least till a couple of years ago – well respected colleges. Students rated them in the top 10 in the state and SRM even produced ‘state rank holders.

Then, they became deemed universities and according to this news report, went in for reckless expansion

The Tamil daily Dinamalar, in its report dated 2 September 2003, has highlighted the massive expansion of capacity by the SRM Engineering College: "on obtaining the deemed university status, SRM Engineering College has admitted 2000 students netting in Rs.300 crore. In the much sought-after ECE course, 600 students had been admitted. A complaint on this had been sent to the chief minister's office, which has initiated an enquiry."

The complaint pointed out that the college, which until last year had a total strength of just 2000, has admitted more than 2000 fresh students this year. Against the optimum strength of around 50 per class, this year it has admitted 80 students in each section for the ECE course collecting Rs.2 lakh per student. It is gathered that the principal has opted to resign unable to cope with this crowd.

Can current students throw some further light on the situation? Are they satisfied with their course?? And if all is above board what is the institute’s problem in applying for AICTE accreditation anyways???

Expansion by itself is not a bad thing - doing so without inadequate teachers, facilities etc is what needs to be checked.

Between the out and out commercialism (of colleges) and the out and out bureacucracy (of AICTE) lies a middle ground which desperately needs to be explored.


  1. As a victim and survivor of the 'Affiliated' and a prospective 'to be deemed' syndrome,I can understand your sentiment.It is not just the recognition part ,but a bigger malaise that is eating the system.Spare a thought for the faculty at such establishments .Most of the lecturers are in the transitional mode between their own graduation and a real job.On an occasion one of my batchmates actually played student to a lecturer who was his junior in school
    A typical visit by the AICTE team would be characterized by sprucing up of the lawns & facilities,Endless plates of Kaju and Badam would be consumed and Cola bottles circulated.ExIIT professors ( alleged visting faculty )would mysteriously appear in full strength and disappear just as suddenly till another team arrives... .
    Every year NASSCOM comes out with figures that the IT sector is falling short of qualified manpower..on the other hand we are churning out Engineers faster than bunny litter...
    The solution is not in the hands of the government ,The corporate sector would have to assume greater role...update the curriculum,engage the faculty and actually authenticate the utility by recruiting from the less fortunate colleges.

  2. What timing Rashmi. Yesterday I called up the AICTE regional office in Bangalore for finding out whether the BVB Marshall MBA program ( is recognised by them or not. The answer was no.
    Now I am in a fix because my sister has been offered a seat there and I am the one who is supposed to make a decision. The MBA program is not recognised but Bhartiya Vidya Bhavan is a known and reputed institution in itself and Marshall University looks like a safe bet too.
    The worrying factors for me are--
    Will that MBA degree be able to get her a decent job.
    Can AICTE shut down the course half way through.

    Facility wise the institute is OK. No issues there.

  3. Having studied in Chennai I do about these colleges ( Satyabhama and SRM). True they both wer extremely reputed colleges. But one can't deny that they completely lost it once they became deemed.They have since started charging exorbidant amounts for entry into their holy portals,have an intake of too many students, too high marks are being awarded to all students amongst their other sins.. But yeah.. the students who are currently studying there do not deserve the punishment that they too recieve just through virtue of studying in that institute. Extremely unfair. After paying through your nose and slogging it through all these years having their degrees being made less significant is heartless! Action should be taken only from the batch of 2006 onwards. But it is to a large extent the governemnts fault. The government on granting the universities their deemed status should have informed them of the need to obtain AICTE approval too.

  4. Am an admit into ISB this year. Is this foreboding something awry about to unfold, given that ISB was asked something by AICTE this year and the fact that they do not have an AICTE accredition as yet?

  5. This comment is not related to your blog but please do check this link out when you can

  6. I'm a representative of the whole of resident doctors in the State of Maharashtra who have gone on strike to claim our basic rights. Please support our cause and spread the news around. Kindly visit our blog and show us your support.

  7. Dear Krishnan...ISB is an ideal paradox when we talk of affiliations and stuff...ISB doesnt need AICTE affiliation...because it is beyond it...remeber the Japanese manufacturer who had to put defective items as the client demanded that on his communication
    ISB has pretty high standards as u know and the affiliation would have caused dilution of those..ST/SC quotas..fee & curiculum control.. and stuff..since u are an admit sure u wud recognize i said in my previous comment..industry acceptance is critical n AICTE affiliation is mere symbolic...n even BUSH decided to grace the non affiiated ISB ..shows that it has some real standing

  8. I hail from South and have a lot of frens working with me , who are from these colleges , they are reputed to have a school like atmosphere !
    But the Q on whether management is rite in admitting more students I think should be viewed in the context that ,the number of Engg seats in the country are limites and ppl who opt for Non-Engg (atleast the wide majority) feel they have lost out and many feel inferior to Engineers though skill-wise it may not be the case.
    Since ultimately these ppl land up in same industry as most of these Engineers ie Software Industry , i feel it is not wrong to increase the seats in a college as long as students are gettin proper facilities. The AICTE 'approved' courses in some new colleges are held in marriage halls and make-shift buildings but they were never Questioned by anyone , so poiting fingers at a few top colleges seem to suggest something else than just the will to 'improve' quality of education in country

  9. AICTE's policies regarding conformance to their academic policies are fairly rigid. It is an improper move to declare such a notice after everyone has committed themselves to an institute. I don't understand the point in removing institutes which have been successful from their inception. As said in the post, it is the facilities that need to be checked and as long as the standards are complied with AICTE should have no trouble with these insititutes.

  10. Although, legally speaking, no technical institution is outside the AICTE's purview, it is only by convention that the Council does not exercise its statutory powers on institutions such as IITs and IIMs. If Law is same for everyone, why are there exceptions? Now read the following and decide.

    As per latest news, the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Delhi has been facing a severe shortage of faculty.

    Twenty-four departments in IIT-D are short-staffed. "There are 72 vacant positions for professors, associate professors, and assistant professors," according to Assistant Director(administration) DP Kothari.

  11. AICTE and Deemed University Case for Contra Proferentum Rule:

    If in a legally enforceable agreement between two or more competent agencies any ambiguity arises, the interpretation should be against the party seeking to rely on it i.e. proferer or the person who drafted the document.

    War clouds have gathered over the Madras High court in the sensational case between the Deemed universities and AICTE ( All India Council for Technical Education ) for which the final verdict is awaited.

    The AICTE act 1987 states "To provide for establishment of an All India council for Technical Education with a view to the proper planning and co-ordinated development of the technical education system throughout the country, the promotion of qualitative improvement of such education in relation to planned quantitative growth and the regulation and proper maintenance of norms and standards in the technical education system and for matters connected therewith."

    The above makes it obligatory that for proper planning and regulation of quantitative growth and coordinated development of Technical Education, AICTE act should have included that universities deemed or otherwise must be required to take its approval for offering technical education.

    The Supreme Court of India Bench Judgement in September 2001 had clearly stated that the power to grant approval for starting new technical institutions and for introduction of new courses or programmes in consultation with the agencies concerned is covered by Section 10( k ) of AICTE Act which would not cover a university. It clearly emerges that AICTE nod is not obligatory for a university in this context.

    If that be the case, then why is AICTE still claiming in its combined Regulations for Requirement of Grant of Approval which states that "No course or programme shall be introduced by any Technical Institution, University including a Deemed University or University Department or College" EXCEPT WITH THE APPROVAL OF THE COUNCIL.

    However, AICTE claims that the other Sections of the AICTE Act 1987 such as Section 10( o ) and 11 empower the AICTE to prescribe guidelines for admissions and inspection of deemed universities.

    Its clear that in the AICTE Act there is an ambiguity between the various Sections as one of them 10( k ) states that the term Technical Institution does not include University while AICTE claims that in other Sections the term Technical Institution includes University.

    If AICTE Act is an agreement regarding mutual responsibilities between two or more parties, then it amounts to a Contract between the Law Enforcers ( AICTE ) and the Law Abiders ( Deemed Universities ).

    Contra Proferentum is the Rule that is applied when interpreting a clause, in an action that says that, where ambiguity as to a terms meaning exists, it should be read against the party who wrote it. That is, the preferred interpretation will be the one that helps the party who drafted it the least. The reasoning behind this Rule is to encourage the drafter of the agreement to be as clear and explicit as possible and to take into account as many foreseeable situations as possible.

    Clearly, the drafters of the AICTE Act have failed in this account and they must face the music of Contra Proferentum Rule and let the Deemed Universities retain their autonomy in birth as well as functioning. Whoever gave birth to Deemed University only should hold the right to ring the Death Bell for them and middle men of the AICTE kind should keep safe distance.

    According to the Vice Chancellor of the Anna University Prof D Viswanathan, there are four lakh engineering graduates unemployed in Tamilnadu and the writing on the wall is clear that bulk of this number comes from the so called AICTE approved Institutions in Tamilnadu and not the Deemed Universities !!!!.

  12. Is AICTE nod obligatory for deemed university?:

    AICTE has been immature and in many ways unprofessional. It is time that it became a truly professional outfit for guiding the growth of technical education in the country or packup and vanish.

    Although AICTE was vested with statutory powers by an Act of Indian Parliament in 1987 with the mandate to organise, plan and administer technical education in the country, Way back in September 2001, the Supreme Court of India had given a judgement that it is not obligatory for a university, created under an Act of a competent legislature, to seek and secure prior approval of the All India Council for Technical Education ( AICTE ) to start a department for imparting a course or programme in technical education or a technical institution as an adjunct to the university itself to conduct technical courses of its choice and selection.

    The Supreme Court Bench which included Mr. Justice Doraiswamy Raju had set aside the verdict of the Madras High Court ( HC ) - which held that it was obligatory on the part of the appellant- Bharathidasan university to secure prior approval of the AICTE to commence the specified technical courses.

    The Bench, on close analysis of the relevant provisions of the AICTE Act 1987, University Grants Commission Act, 1956, pointed out that the clear intention of the legislature ( in enacting the AICTE Act ) is not that all institutions whether university or otherwise ought to be treated as technical institutions covered by the ( AICTE ) Act.

    The Bench had pointed out that if that was the intention, there was no difficulty for the legislature to have merely provided a definition of technical institution by not excluding university from the definition thereof and thereby avoided the necessity to use alongside both the words technical institutions and university in several provisions in the Act.

    The Bench had also observed that the definition of technical institution excludes from its purview a university, and when by definition a university is excluded from a technical institution, to interpret that such a clause or such an expression wherever the expression technical institution occurs will include a university will be reading into the Act what is not provided therein.

    The Bench had further added that the power to grant approval for starting new technical institutions and for introduction of new courses or programmes in consultation with the agencies concerned is covered by Section 10( k ) which would not cover a university but only a technical institution.

    The Bench had noted that if Section 10 ( k ) of AICTE act does not cover a university but only a technical institution, a regulation cannot be framed in such a manner so as to apply the regulation framed in respect of technical institution to apply for universities when the Act maintains a complete dichotomy between a university and a technical institution.

    AICTE has been sponsoring short term training programmes at SRM Deemed University and today AICTE says SRM degrees good for nothing!!. Probably there is no cooperation between the sponsorship cell of AICTE and Accreditation Cell of AICTE!!. Its time AICTE is accredited by someone competent.

    Although, legally speaking, no technical institution is outside the AICTE's purview, it is only by convention that the Council does not exercise its statutory powers on institutions such as IITs and IIMs. If Law is same for everyone, why are there exceptions?

  13. Madras HC moved againt Anna Varsity VC for holding sensitive post in AICTE:

    Who says office of profit issue is concerned only with politicians. In the case of Anna University VC you know which one is office of profit. Remember that one of the solutions in the AICTE (All Included Commission for offering Technical Education)Vs Tamilnadu Deemed Universities is that these deemed universities loose their deemed status and get doomed meaning affiliated to Big Brother Anna University. Now, the Jig saw puzzle must be opening out to the public.
    Make Hay when the sun shines.....

  14. IIMB will have a Singapore Shanty 4700 Sqft, 3 hour working day and just one faculty to conduct world class Management Education. I wonder if the above meets so called AICTE specifications. On the contrary ISB which has world class facilities at Hyderabad has been questioned by AICTE about maintaining standards. Its time the AICTE joke is called off. AICTE you stand exposed in your standards.

  15. The UGC and the AICTE “have no idea how to maintain standards”, says former IIT Madras director PV Indiresan. “Their culture is bureaucratic; they think that national accreditation will do. Even a simple observation of the number of responsible assessors needed to monitor 17,000 odd colleges will show that centralised accreditation is not the answer.”

    In a recent survey in Businessworld, 64 per cent of the recruiters surveyed said AICTE accreditation is not important. One of the top business schools in India — the Indian School of Business (ISB) — does not have AICTE accreditation.

  16. The Madras High Court has asked AICTE to furnish details based on which it issued a press notice on February 16 stipulating that all institutions offering technical education should apply for AICTE approval on or before March 7.

    The First Bench comprising Chief Justice A.P. Shah and Justice Prabha Sridevan, hearing a batch of petitions relating to the regulatory jurisdiction of the AICTE and the UGC over deemed universities, also asked counsel for the AICTE as to why it issued such a press notice only in respect of deemed universities located in Tamil Nadu.

    During the course of arguments, the Bench also observed that there seemed to be an "overlapping of interests" in the Anna University Vice-Chancellor holding an additional charge of the Chairman of the Southern Regional Committee of the AICTE.

    In his submissions, K. Chandru, senior counsel for the UGC, contended that the AICTE should give its inputs about the infrastructure and intake of deemed universities only when its advice is sought for. The UGC need not act on the unsolicited advice from the AICTE, he said, adding that similarly the Ministry of Human Resources Development was not bound by the unsolicited inputs from either of the statutory bodies. Such an advice is mandatory and not directory in nature, he said.

    In April 2005 the UGC wrote to deemed universities calling upon them furnish information relating to academic standards, infrastructure and intake in their institutions. Maintaining that the Commission was processing the response, Mr. Chandru said if the amenities in these institutions were found unsatisfactory the UGC would recommend to the Central Government to revoke their deemed university status. If they meet the requirements they would be accorded recognition, he added.

    G. Rajagopal, senior counsel for the Thanjavur-based SASTRA Deemed University, submitted that the institution was open to inspection irrespective of the agency involved in the process. He said all relevant information called for by the statutory agencies had already been submitted by the administration.

  17. The Madras High Court, in an interim direction relating to the regulatory jurisdiction of the AICTE and the UGC over deemed universities, has instructed the former to issue a public notice advising students to attend classes.

    Reserving its final order, a bench comprising Chief Justice A P Shah and Justice Prabha Sridevan said the AICTE in its advertisement should mention that students must return to their colleges, since failure to attend classes would result in their losing an academic year.

    It must be published in English and Indian language newspapers, the judges said.

    The bench indicated that orders would be pronounced in the third week of May and observed that all deemed universities must take prior permission from the UGC before starting new courses.

    The AICTE could be part of the inspection team mandated to visit deemed universities, the judges added.

  18. ptzAICTE cannot take action against Deemed Universities: HC
    The Madras High Court today ruled that the All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) has the authority to inspect deemed universities but any action against them could be only taken by the University Grants Commission (UGC).

    A Division Bench of the High Court comprising Chief Justice A P Shah and Justice Prabha Sridevan made the observation while quashing a public notice issued by the AICTE in February last, warning of stringent legal action against Deemed Universities which conducted new courses and programmes, without its prior approval.

    Disposing of petitions filed by about 20 deemed universities in Tamil Nadu, the judges pointed out that according to a UGC communication, "the AICTE may visit the university department or constituent college and send its final report to the the UGC for final approval".

    Noting that the AICTE team conducting any inspection of deemed universities had the representation of the UGC, the bench said if the UGC did not depute such a member within a reasonable time, the AICTE could proceed to conduct the inspection and forward its report to the UGC for action.

    Referring to the notices sent by the AICTE and the UGC calling for information regarding the courses offered and those introduced after being declared Deemed Universities and whether UGC approval had been taken, the bench directed all universities to respond to the notices within four weeks if they had not done so.

  19. Let it be remembered that what camelpost was saying all along about AICTE and Deemed universities is what has been given as judgement by the court and the only difference was the time gap

  20. i am a "desperado"............

    reading all these i feel that i should not study further..........i have already been under an open university due to "majboori".......but now got a call from BVB-Marshall MBA programme............knowing the facts i directly talked to a prof there and he said that his engineer daughter is studying there and there should be nothing more to say to it........

    then i talked to a lawyer friend in B'lore and she said that 2 yrs back the placement were in companies like HP; her friend said that his bro or someone known is there too........

    i mean to ask someone of u all........whether this is going to be a good investment......becoz spending 6 lacs with no return to not what any of us would want.......

    state facts and reasons and help me out ..............if anyone wishes to

  21. people i'm selected in SRMEEE, any advice on whether i shoul go ahead or not?

  22. Anonymous9:29 AM

    减速机 齿轮减速机 SEW减速机 摆线针轮减速机 蜗轮蜗杆减速机 interlining
    明星代言 明星经纪公司
    制动单元 铝壳电阻
    modern abstract art sofa manufacturer
    净水器 开水器 净水机 净水 软水机 软水 直饮机 家用净水 家用净水器 家用净水机 中央净水 中央净水器 水家装 水家电 水卫士 混合机
    过滤机 DHL快递 俄罗斯签证 回转支承 Laser marking
    保险箱 法兰 法兰标准
    polycarbonate sheet 回流焊 波峰焊
    压球机 注册上海公司 儿童摄影
    牛皮癣 皮肤病 制氮机
    食堂售餐机 校园一卡通
    学校一卡通 ic卡售饭机
    食堂售饭机 深圳一卡通
    广东售饭机 机电设备安装
    北京发票 代开发票
    餐饮发票 住宿发票
    网络电话 免费网络电话
    假发 补发
    织发 植发
    压滤机 板框压滤机
    蒸馏水机 纯蒸气发生器
    上海搬家公司 上海搬场公司
    大众搬家 大众搬场
    张家界旅游 香港旅游
    深圳旅行社 打包机
    收缩机 对讲机 电源模块
    售饭机 水控机 水控器
    萎缩性胃炎 neoprene laptop bags
    SEO优化 计量泵
    胃炎 胃病
    冷水机 冰水机
    北京特价机票 北京打折计票 北京国际机票
    北京机票预定 北京飞机票
    北京订机票 北京机票查询 饮料机械
    银杏 水培花卉 企业宣传片 空分设备
    化工泵 离心机
    电话交换机 程控交换机 集团电话 集装袋
    混合机 混合机
    混合机捏合机 捏合机
    捏合机导热油炉 导热油炉
    导热油炉 反应釜 反应釜
    反应釜 spherical roller bearing
    搬运车 搬运车 电动搬运车 油桶搬运车 堆高车 电动堆高车 半电动堆高车 堆垛车
    高空作业平台车 电动叉车 平衡重叉车 前移叉车 电瓶叉车
    韩国饰品批发 模块电源
    X架 超薄灯箱> 易拉宝 展柜制作
    代理服务器 游戏加速器 网络加速器
    网通加速器 电信加速器 电信网通转换器
    电信网通加速器 网通电信互转
    网通电信互通 网络游戏加速器
    美国VPN代理 美国独享VPN 美国独享IP
    pvc ceiling panel Spherical roller bearings
    安全鞋 劳保鞋 防砸鞋 电绝缘鞋 上海安全鞋 上海劳保鞋 江苏劳保鞋
    服装软件 服装管理软件 进销存软件
    进销存管理软件 服装管理系统 服装进销存软件
    进销存系统 进销存管理系统 免费进销存软件
    吉林中医 东北特产
    阳痿 阴茎短小 阴茎增大
    早泄 前列腺炎 阴茎增粗 阴茎延长
    国际机票 上海国际机票
    国际特价机票 国际打折机票
    砂磨机 砂磨机
    砂磨机 卧式砂磨机
    卧式砂磨机 卧式砂磨机
    三辊研磨机 三辊研磨机
    三辊研磨机 混合机 混合机
    混合机 锥形混合机 锥形混合机 锥形混合机 行星动力混合机 行星动力混合机 行星动力混合机 无重力混合机 无重力混合机 无重力混合机
    干粉砂浆设备 干粉砂浆设备
    干粉砂浆设备 捏合机 捏合机 捏合机 导热油炉 导热油炉 导热油炉 反应釜 反应釜 反应釜 搪玻璃反应釜 搪玻璃反应釜 搪玻璃反应釜
    乳化机 涂料设备 干混砂浆设备 无重力混合机 胶体磨 涂料成套设备 双螺旋混合机
    北京婚庆 北京婚庆公司
    办证 呼吸机 制氧机
    亚都 亚都加湿器 亚都净化器
    饰品批发 小饰品批发 韩国饰品 韩国饰品批发 premature ejaculation penis enlargement
    安利产品 马来西亚留学
    网站优化 网站推广
    论文代写 代写论文
    拖链 防护罩 排屑机 塑料拖链 钢铝拖链
    深圳装饰 深圳装饰公司 深圳装修公司
    特价机票 打折机票 国际机票
    新风换气机 换气机 立式新风换气机 风机箱 新风系统 能量回收机
    搅拌机 混合机 乳化机
    毛刷 毛刷辊 工业毛刷 刷子 钢丝刷
    涂层测厚仪 硬度计
    兆欧表 激光测距仪
    测振仪 转速表
    温湿度计 风速仪
    噪音计 红外测温仪
    硬度计 万用表
    美容院 美容加盟
    澳洲留学 澳大利亚留学
    酒店预定 北京酒店预定 北京酒店
    nail equipment nail products nail product nail uv lamp nail uv lamp nail uv lamps uv nail lamp nail brush
    nail file nail tool nail tip nail gel curing uv lamps lights
    万用表 风速仪
    红外测温仪 噪音计
    苗木价格 苗木信息 标牌制作 深圳标牌 北京儿童摄影 防静电鞋 淘宝刷信誉
    威海凤凰湖 威海海景房 大庆密封件
    打标机 淘宝刷信誉 TESOL/TEFL国际英语教师证书 英语教师进修及培训 北京快递公司 北京国际快递

  23. Anonymous8:31 AM

    ^^ nice blog!! ^@^

    徵信, 徵信網, 徵信社, 徵信社, 徵信社, 徵信社, 感情挽回, 婚姻挽回, 挽回婚姻, 挽回感情, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信, 捉姦, 徵信公司, 通姦, 通姦罪, 抓姦, 抓猴, 捉猴, 捉姦, 監聽, 調查跟蹤, 反跟蹤, 外遇問題, 徵信, 捉姦, 女人徵信, 女子徵信, 外遇問題, 女子徵信, 徵信社, 外遇, 徵信公司, 徵信網, 外遇蒐證, 抓姦, 抓猴, 捉猴, 調查跟蹤, 反跟蹤, 感情挽回, 挽回感情, 婚姻挽回, 挽回婚姻, 外遇沖開, 抓姦, 女子徵信, 外遇蒐證, 外遇, 通姦, 通姦罪, 贍養費, 徵信, 徵信社, 抓姦, 徵信, 徵信公司, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信公司, 徵信社, 徵信公司, 女人徵信, 外遇

    徵信, 徵信網, 徵信社, 徵信網, 外遇, 徵信, 徵信社, 抓姦, 徵信, 女人徵信, 徵信社, 女人徵信社, 外遇, 抓姦, 徵信公司, 徵信社, 徵信社, 徵信社, 徵信社, 徵信社, 女人徵信社, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 女子徵信社, 女子徵信社, 女子徵信社, 女子徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信,

    徵信, 徵信社,徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 外遇, 抓姦, 離婚, 外遇,離婚,

    徵信, 外遇, 離婚, 徵信社, 徵信, 外遇, 抓姦, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 外遇, 徵信社, 徵信, 外遇, 抓姦, 徵信社, 征信, 征信, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 征信, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信社, 徵信社, 徵信, 外遇, 抓姦, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信, 徵信社, 徵信,


Disqus for Youth Curry - Insight on Indian Youth